Goodbye Columbus

Goodbye Columbus

“The current state of knowledge is a moment in history, changing just as rapidly as the state of knowledge in the past has changed and in many instances, more rapidly.” (Jean Piaget)

” What passes for identity in America is a series of myths about one’s heroic ancestors”. (James Baldwin)

“We are not maker’s of history. We are made by history.”
(Martin Luther King Jr.)

Christopher Columbus did not “discover” America, since the continent was already there and thriving with culture. At the time of his arrival, humans had been living there for at least 20,000 years and our Northern and Southern continents were populated by hundreds of small nations and regional empires. Nevertheless, Columbus Day is celebrated on the second Monday of October as a national holiday, with events and parades; and this patriotic lie is still enshrined in public school textbooks. My generation of elementary school pupils dutifully parroted the poem which began ” In nineteen hundred and forty two, Columbus sailed the ocean blue… and this nonsense apparently still conveyed to children today, is nothing more than propaganda. As James W. Loewen points out in Lies My Teacher’s Told Me: Everthing Your American History Books Got Wrong (2007), American History books ” are marred by an embarrassing combination of blind patriotism, sheer misinformation and outright lies. These books omit almost all the ambiguity, passion, conflict and drama from our past. ”

Never mind that Columbus’s expedition never set foot on the North Amercian landmass. They arrived at an island he named San Salvatore, somewhere in the Bahamas, that he thought was India, and didn’t hesitate taking the land, wealth and labor from the indigenous peoples. This led to the near extermination of local inhabitants while Columbus also initiated the reign of terror that became the transatlantic slave trade. Even more gruesome factors are readily available in primary source material provided by letters of his and other members of his crew. (thirdworldtravels.com )

While some enlightened communities prefer to celebrate our October holiday as Indigenous Peoples Day, the myth of benevolent discovery persists. Nevertheless, the truth is even more interesting. Harvard scholar Garikai Chengu, in challenging a Eurocentric view of history, maintains African Amercian history did not begin with slavery in the New World. He suggests that a growing body of evidence indicates that Africans had frequently sailed across the Atlantic to the Americas, thousand of years before Colombus and the Christian era. In his view, the strongest evidence for Africans in Ameirca comes from Columbus himself who wrote about “black skinned people who had come from the Southeast in boats, trading in gold tipped spears”. (globalresearch.ca, August 10,2018) African explorers could well have crossed the Atlantic in ancient boats, especially given the likelyhood that landmasses between the continents existed in previous times which are now under water.

During the ninteen-forties, archeologists discovered a civilization now known as the Olmecs of c.1500-400 BC, which predates any other advanced civilization in the Americas. There is reason to believe that this Olmec civilization, the Mother Culture of Mexico and Mesoamercia, was of African origin, and other races were involved, as well. The rise of the Olmec empire, whose heartland was located in the tropical lowlands of South Central Mexico, also coincided with the period that Black Egyptian culture ascended in Africa. Despite the ethnocentric academics eager to dismiss the African-Atlantic hypothesis, in The Ra Expeditions (1971) Thor Heydahl proved that Egyptian reed boats could make the passage along favorable currents from Africa to the Americas.

The idea that the Olmecs were related to African civilization was first suggested by Jose’ Melgar in 1862 and later developed by Guyanese born Rutgers University Professor, Ivan van Sertima (1935-2009), in They Came Before Columbus (1997), which was subject to much derision by eurocentric academics. Nevertheless, many of the Olmec colossal heads, first discovered in 1858, (which date from c. 814 BC, can be up to 10 feet tall, and weigh up to 4 tons), display clearly defined Negroid features, as well as intricate African-style braids. These still mysterious, beautifully carved heads, who may have been warriors, priests, sports heros or rulers, all wear helmets possibly fashioned of leather or even gold. As the earliest known major civilization in their region, the Olmecs were the first pyramid builders and acomplished stone carvers who had a written language; as well as being accomplished farmers, astronomers and mathematicians.

While the exact origin of what is now known as the Mayan calendar is controversial, it is believed by many that thier system of time keeping originated with the Olmecs.This complex calendar is non-linear and measures varying lengths of time in three interlocking wheels of various sizes; the Tolkin sacred calendar of 260 days, the Haab solar calendar of 365 days and the Long Count of a much greater cycle. It also seems likely that this Long Count and the concept of zero may have been a major Olmec contribution to Mesoamerican civilization. Unfortunately, the Mayan calendar is often confused with the circular Aztec Sun Stone which is a sacrificial altar and not a calendar.

Additional evidence of an African presence in the Americas prior to Columbus, may rest with the discovery and dating of a skull nicknamed Luzia, discovered in1975. Her remains, which date from the Upper Paleolithic era are from a strata radiocarbon-dated to be 11,500 years old. Luzia was found in a cave likely occupied by a group of hunter/ gatherers who roamed the savannah of South Central Brazil; and who may have migrated from Africa. Various anthropologists have described her features as Negroid and forensic facial-reconstruction expert Richard Neave agrees that she is likely of African orgin.

This and other ongoing discoveries necessitate a serious reassessment of long established theories as to the settlment of the Americas. (Larry Rohter, “An Ancient Skull Challenges Long Held Theories”, NY Times, October 26, 1999).

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Arendt’s Paradox: The Right To Have Rights

Arendt’s Paradox: The Right To Have Rights

“Human rights are not worthy of the name if they do not protect the people we don’t like as well as the people we do.” (Trevor Phillips)

The greatest threat to our way of life is not migration. It is that we will swallow the lie that some human lives matter less than others.” (Laurie Penny)

As outrage over family separations along our southern border continues to mount, well- meaning citizens protest that, “this is not American”, and “this not who we are “. Unfortunately, history and the facts suggest otherwise. In truth, this is exactly who we are and have been; and family separations have been long carried out under American law. Denial of our historical and ongoing situation risks an abdication of our power to effectively respond to our world, exactly as it is, in order to see what we can and want to do. In reality, our current crisis along this border is yet another iteration of a very long, still replicating fractal of legal injustice. On this continent, one could speculate that such legal injustices date at least as far back as 1492 which gave rise to theft of a continent, genocide as well as a violation of bodies,souls and indentities which led to further destruction, conflict and enslavement. One could also speculate that our American history of separating and dehumanizing families has deep roots within the trans-Atlantic slave trade .

Prior to abolition, children of Black slaves could be sold at legal slave markets and also by owners at will. Under the laws of those times, Black men and women could not protect the integrity of their families.Those who ran away, alone or with family members, faced harsh punishment and even death, if captured by slave hunters. Then, as now, Bible passages were invoked to justify such polices: Romans 13, for example, which urges believers to “obey the laws of government because God ordained them for the purpose of order”. In her Post-Traumatic Slave Syndrome (2005), Joy Degrury describes the impact of these draconian policies on Black familes and their relationships today. Recent developments in epigenetic research have confirmed that unresolved trauma can be transmitted down through many generations. My clinical experience with nearly 50 years of work with individual, family and collective trauma confirms the validity of this research and her clinical experience.

Our history of separating and dehumanizing families also continued on with mandatory government and church affililiated boarding schools for Native American children. Following the 1890 South Dakota massacre at Wounded Knee, which concluded many chapters of America’s Indian wars; authorities forced Native American families to send their children away to government and church affiliated boarding schools. Those who declined were kidnapped for purposes of painful and humiliating “white washing” indocrination and assimiliation away from forbidden language, traditional dress, and tribal customs. Records clearly show the degree to which these children were subjected to neglect, psychological abuse and severe corporal punishment. I know this to be true since some Native American survivors of this cruel system were patients of mine in a Family Practice Clinic in Colorado. It was not until 1978 that Congress passed the Indian Child Welfare Law granting tribal authorities a strong voice in child custody cases and that attendance at these boarding schools was no longer mandatory. (Dee Brown, Bury My Heart At Wounded Knee, 1972)

During the Great Depression, an anti-Mexican hysteria resulted in authorities in California and Texas legally deporting Mexicans and Mexican Americans who were wrongly blamed for the country’s economic downturn. Familes were separated and many children never saw their parents again. (Russell Contreras, Chicago Tribune, July 8, 2018).

Official government policy also mandated the arrest of some 120,000 Japanese-Americans as an “enemy race”, who were ordered to evacuate, leave their places of employment, dispossessed of their properties, and confined within a series of internment camps around the country. At least 30,000 of these prisoners were children. Moreover, a case could be made that such coercive practices persist within our present- day detention centers for marginalized youths who are then targeted for school to prison for profit pipelines.

Our current Trump administration’s fiasco of “Zero Tolerance” immigration policies have fostered an ugly climate of anti-immigrant rhetoric by maintaining that there is an “us” who must be protected from “them”. These refugees who come to us out of fear for their lives, for asylum, security and opportunity, have been demonized by our President’s toxic, imflammatory rhetoric; demeaning them as “animals, “criminal aliens, pouring in to “infest and overun”, in order to defend his policies against the most vulnerable. Even more surreal is this administration’s invocation of Biblical verses about “God”s Law”, slave owner’s Romans’s 13 again, to justify tearing children from their parents, and putting them in steel and chain link cages. Some of these children who are as young as one year, are legally required to appear before immigration judges and without legal representation. Children have been forcibly separated from their familes with separate case numbers with no plan for keeping track of where either parents or children might wind up. The mind boggles in the face of such perfectly legal, senseless cruelty and, never mind that immigrant detention is a profitable corporate industry which has grown into a billion dollar enterprise. (Manny Fernandez and Katie Benner, NY Times.com, June 21, 2018.)

Adding to this collective trauma we have our militarized ICE raids, using Gestapo style tactics. These high profile operations are designed to humiliate, and terrorize communites where everyone is a suspect; if they dare to speak a language other than English in public, especially Spanish. Much of our Southwestern territories including parts of California, Arizona, Colorado, UItah, Wyoming and New Mexico used to be Mexico before our Mexican American War. (1846-1848 ) Many Mexicans have been here longer than many Americans and as a result many of these regions have been and still are bilingual and very fond of Mexican cuisine as evidenced by our ubitiquious Taco Bell concessions.

The plight of millions of refugees existing in legal limbo is nothing new. In seeking a wider perspective upon our current border crisis I turn to the writings of Hannah Arendt , German born American political philosopher (1906-1975) who, in fleeing Nazi persecution and therefore stateless, was one of the very few lucky ones who managed to successfully immigrate to the United States in 1941. In 1943, she wrote, “We Refugees”, an essay expressing her outrage at the existential crisis such people faced and again in “Origins of Totalitarianism”, she continued to pursue the subject of refugee rights.

Without legally enforcable rights, Arendt maintained, refugees can be treated as less than human. Even if they were sheltered, fed and clothed by some public or private agency, this was a result of charity, not rights. While the USA and many other nations recognized the rights of the persecuted to seek asylum in another country, these same nations assert their right for sovereign control over nationationality, immigration and deportation . Arendt identified this conflict as a paradox central to the belief that human rights are inaliable. However, without legal residence, refugees lack those basic rights, intrinsic to being regarded as human. In theory, human rights were supposedly independent of gender, race, religion, citizenship or nationality. Yet, in regard to the right to life, liberty and pursuit of happiness, the stateless still remain in need to have rights. As a result of this painful and still ongoing paradox , Hannah Arendt wrote:

“The right to have rights, or the right of every individual to belong to humanity, should be guaranteed by humanity itself. It is by no means certain whether this is possible because of the present sphere of internationsl law… which still operates in terms of reciprocal agreements of treaties between sovereign states. As a result, individual nations retain the power to deny segments of humanity, and their “right to have rights” by asserting national sovereignity.”

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NIJMEGEN

NIJMEGEN

Photo by Karl-Heinz Rauscher

“I live in a crazy time”. (Anne Frank 1929-1945)

“Have you ever heard the expression: Walk a mile in my shoes, and then you judge me?” (Ann Rule)

In June of this year I was invited to the Netherlands, together with my German colleague Dr. Karl-Heinz Rauscher, to offer a workshop on the topic of Men, Women, War and Peace. Our event took place in the city of Nijmegen, located in the southeasten region of the country,along the Waal river, a few kilometers from the German border.Originally established as a Roman military camp,Nijmegen is the oldest city in the Netherlands and was the first Dutch municipality to come under German control during World War II. Given its antiquity, Nijmegen has a long and very rich history, however, given the nature of our topic, particpants were primarily concerned with unresolved traumatic events that occurred during the Nazi times which continue to reverberate into individual and family lives today.

In 1939 there were 140,000 Dutch Jews living in the Netherlands including some 25,000 who had fled Germany and Austria during the 1930s rise of the Third Reich and Nazi racial hygiene laws which included Jews among those deemed “unworthy of life”. With the German invasion in May 1940, the Netherlands was already the most densely populated country in Europe, without much open space or woodlands for people to hide. As a result, many who survived the Holocaust were hidden by other people. As is the case with countries under hostile occupation, citizens often respond by choosing to collaborate with the oppressers or become involved with the resistance. In many cases members of the same family made radically different choices.

During the Nazi occupation, the greater part of the Dutch administrative infra-structure and municipal police, together with Dutch railway staff, rounded up Jewish deportees. These unfortunates were then transported to a transit camp such as Westerbork, a forbidding wasteland in northeast Holland, and then sent by rail to Polish death camps such as Auschwitz and Sobibor, where very few survived. During this time, the Dutch underground managed, at risk of torture and death, to hide an estimated 25,000 to 30,000 Jews. In later times, the Dutch received a significant number of awards from Yad Vashem for saving Jewish lives. (yadvashem.org)

After the war ended in 1945, Jews who emerged from hiding or returned from concentration camps were faced with a disorganized society unprepared to re-integrate or offer compensation. Legal battles ensued as Holocuast victims struggled to regain possessions, life insurance and bank accounts. ( Michael Palomino, Encyclopedia Judaica, Vol.12, 2008).

Many citizens of that generation, perpetrators, victims and bystanders, chose to cope with their overwhelming collective trauma through denial, silence, secrets, and cover ups.

Given our topic involving war and peace, it was not surprising that the unresolved traumas of the Nazi-era presented through the issues of our workshop particpants. In sessions involving victims who were deported to almost certain death, their representatives in systemic constellation work, showed a curious fascination with shoes. Moreover, those who were representing their perpetrators, said they could only see the shoes of the victims. At the time, we were quite puzzled with their focus on shoes .

Later in the evening following this workshop, Karl-Heinz and I went out walking in the city and were amazed to find streets decorated with rows and rows of overhead wires hung with thousands of shoes; all manner of shoes; sandals, boots, wooden clogs, slippers, high heels, baby shoes and so on. Given the content of that day’s sessions, we began to speculate as to the possible relationship between these thousands of shoes and the deportations during the occupation. My mind flashed back to those tragic photographs of huge mounds of shoes still on display in Auschwitz, which had belonged to the murdered deportees. Karl-Heinz had the thought that through this outdoor art installation, perhaps the city was, unconscoiusly, bringing to light the fate of their deportees.

We soon learned that the stated purpose of the outdoor installation was to celebrate Nijmegen’s famed Four Mile March, held on the third Tuesday of each July, a tradition since 1909 to promote health and fitness. While initially envisioned as a way for Dutch youth to become fit for military service this tradition grew to include civilians and then women in 1913, and now people come from all over to participate in this city-wide walking festival. (walkthewalk.org). For most observers, rows of overhead shoes strung above those old streets are merely festival decoration, while given our work with collective trauma its not surprising, that Karl-Heinz and I were drawn to speculate about all those shoes in relation to unresolved issues of deportation and mass murder.

While it seems that much is still unresolved from the years of Nazi occupation, there is nevertheless a small memorial at the Kitty de Wijze Plaza. Just a few steps from the cathedral dedicated to St. Stephen, there is a statue (by Paulus de Swaarf,1938-2008) of Kitty de Wijze, who together with her family, was deported and murdered along with 400 other Jews from Nijmegen whose names appear on a bronze plaque on a nearby wall.

With mass migrations and deportations still ongoing, it is clear that humanity still has much to learn as to the consequences of such crimes against humanity. In the Netherlands, one brave young girl tried to warn us in her Diary of Anne Frank, published after her death in Bergen Belsen. Anne died of typhus together with her sister Margot and their mother was starved to death in Auschwitz. Only Anne’s father Otto Frank survived the Holocaust and subsequently published the diary she kept during the time their family was in hiding from the Nazis in Amsterdam.

While the Diary of Anne Frank is much loved by many American readers, we would do well to also be aware that the Frank family applied for visas to the USA as refugees and were denied entrance due to strict immigration policies designed to “protect National Security” and “influx of foreigners” during wartime. (Elahe Izadi, washingtonpost, November 24, 2015).

Such reasoning is with us again under the Trump admistrations’s policies of mass deportations of “illegal aliens” and refusal to offer asylum to refugees, especially Muslims and many Latin Americans gathered along our southern border.  As we have seen in the Netherlands and many other countries, the consequences of indifference and crimes against humanity will continue to reverberate through many generations, as these collective traumas will manifest in individuals, families and many other forms of relationship.

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TIME SPACE AND FRACTALS II

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COLUMBINE REVISITED

COLUMBINE REVISITED

Once you have seen the larger pattern,you can longer see a part as the whole ” . (Ursula LeGuin)

Shooting sprees are as American as apple pie, convenience stores and mass incarcerations . And yet, the April 20th,1999, Columbine High School massacre in Littleton Colorado, launched a sustained media blitzkreig; which continues to ricochet in and around our American culture. The shock of this now iconic event, sank deep into our national psyche and remains troubling to this day; as that cruel madness continues to serve as twisted inspiration for other similar events. While the Columbine massacre was not the first event of this kind in the USA, it became iconic due to a massive media hype and political involvement at the highest level of both government and military.

April 20th was a cold Spring morning, a Tuesday as I remember, when I was living in a small town not far from Littleton, a quiet suburb south of Denver. A phone call alerted me to a frantic media, struggling to make sense of what was to become the most notorious school-related tragedy in American history. Columbine High School, named for their elegant state flower that blankets the Western Rockies, suddenly became the site of unthinkable carnage. Shortly after 11 A.M., seniors, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, had opened fire with guns and bombs, killing 12 students and a teacher; while wounding 23 others during a 46 minute killing spree before, turning their weapons upon themselves.

Over time and with more than a decade of research, I eventually came to some understanding of the wider context of those Columbine events and later with the Littleton community, as representing an integral part of a replicating loop, in an ongoing fractal of our unfinished business with genocide and war. As a result, I published “War in Colorado” in A Question of Balance (2008). Given the recent events surrounding a high school shooting in Parkland, Florida, I have decided to re-visit that 1999 rampage which lit the fuse of a fire still raging out of control.

One of the issues that keep trauma specialists awake at night, is the question of why some traumas repeat, as they definitely do, throughout individual lives, family systems and in larger groups of tribes, communities and entire nations. These often uncanny repetitions tend to happen on an anniversary of previous unresolved traumas. While dates of traumatic repetitions have often been dismissed as mere coincidence, my experience over nearly fifty years of working with trauma suggests otherwise. These temporal markers are important in tracking traumas that repeat throughout individual lives, families and larger systems as well as representatives of important clues that something serious is in need of attention and resolution.

In addition to dates of previous unresolved traumas, a second factor may be the location of a traumatic event, for as Rupert Sheldrake has suggested, places have “fields of memory”. And third, personal and systemic histories of those involved may also be a factor. The importance of these three factors, may be understood as “attractors” within the context of chaos theory. According to John Briggs and David Peat in Seven Life Lessons of Chaos, the scientific term chaos refers to an underlying interconnectedness that exists within apparently random events. As chaos theory continues to emerge as a new cultural perspective, we are challenged to question our cherished assumptions about causality.

Early on, I felt that the apparent chaos surrounding the Columbine tragedy was worth examining, in hopes of bringing some insight to the possibility of an underlying order. Working within this paradigm was a speculation that this seemingly random event might be understood as part of a pattern which flows from the past, through the present, and into the future as a component in a still evolving system. Chaos theory suggests that if an event is part of a repeating pattern within a larger system, then this system will have one or more attractors which attract a tendency for behaviors or events to constellate and also repeat along the same or similar themes. Consequently, I began to search for these attractors by gradually assembling non-linear connections contributing to this tragedy. Gradually then, a gestalt of this event began to emerge as something like a collage with the dates April 19th and 20th and the Colorado location presenting the first two attractors.

Timing played an essential role in viewing the events in Littleton from a chaotic as well as systemic perspective as there were a combination of intentional and unintentional synchronicities involved with this date for what Eric and Dylan had termed their “military operation”. According to their diaries, April19th was the original target date for what they called their “judgment day”. As with most terrorist events, this date was intended to play a pivotal role. Given their fascination with Nazi lore and swastika symbols evident throughout their diaries, the two would have been aware of the date of the April 19th Warsaw Ghetto uprising in 1943 when German troops arrived to round up remaining Jews.

Eric had written an 11 page paper on “Nazi Culture” and in a journal entry of the previous year: ” I love the Nazis too. I f…..g can’t get enough of the swastika, SS and Iron Cross”. Eric took to wearing Tee shirts with German phrases and both boys took German classes and were known to shout “Seig Heil !” along with a stiff armed Nazi salute, at any successful bowling strikes. April 19th is also a date associated with clashes between anti-government radicals and “rule of law”. More specifically, this date is an anniversary of the Oklahoma City Bombing, April 19th,1995, now remembered as the deadliest domestic terror attack in U.S. history, which shocked and wounded our American heartland. A series of explosions destroyed the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Office Building killing 168 people including 19 children under the age of six and wounding over 680 others.

The so called mastermind of this fertilizer bomb attack was former Army Sergeant Timothy McVeigh, former Eagle Scout and decorated Gulf War veteran who served in Iraq. One of his duties was to use a massive armored vehicle to bulldoze bodies of Iraqi casualties of US bomb strikes and bury them alive in trenches. A similar fate befell his bombing victims as many of them were crushed and buried in the Oklahoma rubble. For Eric and Dylan, Timothy McVeigh was added to their Nazi idols as another hero to be emulated. As a result they named their plan a “military operation” which they hoped would “top Mc Veigh’s body count” as they harnessed their assault weapons with military web gear.

As a dedicated terrorist, dates were important to McVeigh as well. He had chosen his April 19th bombing attack to coincide with the second anniversary of the FBI and Department of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms apocalyptic assault on a radical, millennial, religious, Branch Davidian compound near Waco, Texas, where this sect was suspected of child abuse and stockpiling illegal weapons. On that date, in April 1993, McVeigh was there in Texas and witnessed a militarized federal law enforcement unit launch an attack on the community, which resulted in the fiery death of more than 80 people, including the immolation of 17 children. For more information see: Dick J. Reavis, The Ashes of Waco (1998).

In a letter dated April 20th, 2001, McVeigh stated that the April 19th Oklahoma bombing was, in part, an act of revenge against the April 19th atrocities of Waco. McVeigh also added that he sought to make a political statement about federal government force against its own citizens. In an interview with CBS news correspondent Ed Bradley, who asked if it is acceptable to use violence against the government , McVeigh replied: “If government is the teacher, violence would be an acceptable option. What did we do to Sudan? What did we do to Afghanistan? Belgrade? What are we doing with the death penalty? It appears that they use violence all the time”. Now in 2018, I would add that this unbridled aggression, endless killing and bloodshed has continued on into the oil rich sands of Libya, Lebanon, Syria and Yemen.

After McVeigh left the Army, he joined an uber-patriotic, anti-government paramilitary militia group suspicious of federal attempts to limit a citizen’s right to bear arms. April 19th,1775 was highly significant to this group, and the “shot heard around the world” was fired by rebels against the British at the Battle of Lexington, now celebrated as Patriots Day. In Massachusetts this civic holiday is held in observance of the Battles of Lexington and Concord. I find it interesting that the Columbine High School sports teams were called the Rebels and are represented by an image of a Revolutionary War soldier. Two hundred and seventy-five years later, two Columbine rebels also planned shots that would be heard around the world.

 

Less than 2 months after these murderous shots, the 1999 Columbine High School graduating class gave their school a statue of a Revolutionary War soldier. Another image of this soldier is set into a circle on the floor, just outside the guidance counselor’s office. Moreover, this soldier is wearing something like a trench coat, and holding a gun. This is even stranger still, given that a hysterical media had initially blamed the massacre on a non-existent “trench coat mafia “.

While this Colorado massacre is often referred to as the Columbine shooting, this overlooks the fact that the original plan was nothing less than a grandiose scheme to orchestrate a bombing attack to blow up the entire school and everyone in it. Bombs were an important part of the boy’s “military operation”. Their homemade arsenal included more than 48 carbon dioxide bombs, 27 pipe bombs,11 one and a half gallon propane containers, seven incendiary devices with 40 plus gallons of flammable liquid, hand grenades and two duffle bag bombs with 20 liquefied petroleum tanks. When all of this was too much to install by the 19th of April, and they couldn’t get their ammo on time, the two carried out their plan on their back up date of April 20th; Adolf Hitler’s birthday.

When most of their poorly constructed bombs fizzled, Eric and Dylan relied upon their semi-automatic weapons to carry on with their “military operation”. Surveillance videos recorded laughter as they strutted around the premises shouting racial slurs, freakishly glib sadistic taunts and sneering insults while gunning down a teacher and their terrified classmates. The pair had recently recorded a series of Basement Tapes filmed with a Sony camcorder checked out from their high school video lab in which they both made clear that they planned to “die in battle”. During one segment Eric said: ” I declare war on the human race and war is what this is”.

Despite the fact that these young men described their well planned massacre as a military operation, with the exception of Michael Moore, none of the subsequent analysts were willing to entertain the possibility that this violence had anything to do with our previous or ongoing wars. In respect to location, as a second attractor in this chaotic configuration, Rupert Sheldrake’s research with morphic fields and morphic resonance may provide some important clues. He describes these fields as “fields of information” and also postulated that places can also have “fields of memory”. This is a variation of an ancient Roman term genius loci or “spirit of place”. Similar beliefs are held by indigenous cultures the world over. Australian Aboriginals, for example, believe that every meaningful activity or process that occurs at a particular location leaves a vibrational residue in and around the ground. Within this and similar realities, landscapes carry and reflect vibrations which also echo events that have transpired there.

As filmmaker Michael Moore pointed out in his award winning documentary, Bowling for Columbine, the presence of a large defense establishment in Littleton set a an appropriate context for Eric and Dylan’s mind-set for their “military operation”. Lockheed Martin, located in the Littleton area near Columbine, is our nation’s prime supplier of weapons of mass destruction and the largest military contractor in service of state sponsored violence as a solution to conflict.

From a historical perspective, one also finds that a tragedy of massacre was not new to the geographical area, which now includes Littleton. At the time of rampage, the city maintained a web site which contained information about Native Americans in the history of Littleton. This article featured an account of the notorious and controversial Sand Creek Massacre which took place on November 29,1864. A total of 137 peaceful Native Americans, mostly women and children, were slaughtered during a predawn raid on their campground. Sand Creek is over 200 miles from Littleton, so I was puzzled as why it was featured on their community site. In response to my query, the web custodian explained that this massacre was on the Littleton web site because it involved the Arapahoe people who had also lived in the Littleton area and also that Littleton is technically located in Arapahoe country.

From a non-linear perspective, there are several elements within the Sand Creek atrocity that resonate with events at Columbine High School. Racism and genocidal intentions are factors in both massacres. Historical records reveal that Colorado Governor John Evans was intent on proving that peace with Indians is not possible, and wanted to eradicate as many Indians as possible. Evans even sent notoriously sadistic, Civil War veteran, Colonel John Chivington and his volunteer Colorado militia troops to attack peaceful Chief Black Kettle and Chief Left Hand and their starving bedraggled bands of Cheyenne and Arapahoe camped at Sand Creek. The Colorado militia responsible for slaughter and mutilation of innocent and defenseless people described their mission as a ” military operation”. Contempt for victims and slaughter of innocents and the role of militia also came into focus as prominent themes in historical and current events surrounding the Columbine massacre.

The military theme and government involvement was carried forward to the memorial service for Columbine victims. Attorney General Janet Reno, responsible for the April 19th massacre at Waco, paid a short visit to the grief stricken community. As a memorial service for the slain victims began, amid controversy as to whether the killers were also victims deserving of prayer and whether 13 or 15 doves should be released to represent departing souls, the U.S. Air Force arranged a military flyover in a “missing man” formation. Gulf War Commander General Colin Powell then arrived together with Vice President Al Gore. Perhaps there is something about the “sins of the fathers” woven into this collage? One might also be tempted to speculate about national karma or cycles of traumatic reenactment. At this point it is now clear that Harris and Klebold’s “military operation” gave rise to safety and security measures which have fostered an increasing tendency towards militarization of our schools.

Turning now to a third factor in this Littleton collage; personal and family histories of the killers may shed at least some light. While the lame-stream media in search of easy answers, rushed to suspect the cause of this tragedy was “bad parents”, facts do not support such a simplistic analysis. Both Eric and Dylan were younger sons of intact, loving, concerned and engaged middle-class families. Shortly before they died, both boys took care to apologize to their parents and to state that their parents were not to blame for their behavior. Eric even quoted from Shakespeare’s Macbeth :”… good wombs have borne bad sons “.

Eric’s attraction to the military is unsurprising and he had expressed a desire to join the Marines after graduation. He grew up on a military base in Oscoda, Michigan, home to the Strategic Air Command and center for activity during the Gulf War; and training center for long range B52 bombers during operation Desert Storm in the Persian Gulf. His father Wayne Harris, had a career there as a pilot until the base closed and he relocated his family to Littleton. After retirement, Wayne was employed by a local defense contractor. Eric lived at home with him, and mother, Katherine Poole Harris, homemaker and part-time caterer, and his older brother Kevin. Neighbors remember them as nice people.

Tom and Sue Klebold named their youngest son after the poet Dylan Thomas. They met at University and later earned a master’s for Tom in geophysics and Sue in education. Their house was orderly and intellectual and one finds little at first glance to offer any insight into why either Eric or Dylan would harbor such suicidal and homicidal rage. The boys had been posthumously diagnosed; Eric as a psychopath and Dylan as a suicidal depressive, follower. Both had issues with anger management and had engaged in several episodes of criminal mischief. Eric was also taking the prescription drug Luvox which has been associated with homicidal and suicidal ideations; now off the market. This and similar drugs have been ongoingly associated with mass shooting events.

While it seems possible that Luvox was an exacerbating factor, it does not seem reasonable to ascertain that this medication was the cause of the Columbine events. In a similar vein, I would maintain that Eric and Dylan’s fascination with violent video games such as DOOM was a symptom, rather than a cause of their grandiose aggressions. In an eerie twist to their story, Dylan was born on September 11th and the shooters had fantasized hijacking a plane and crashing it into buildings in New York City.

Since it is not at all clear from the outward appearance of their families of origin what factors might account for the attraction to war, Nazis, genocide and a strong pull toward death; one then wonders about systemic factors from previous generations. At this point, the Harris family’s earlier history in regard to war or genocide is not available, nor is there information, for this inquiry, known about Katherine Harris or Tom Klebold’s generational data.

We do know however that Sue Klebold had Jewish roots through her father Milton Yassenoff and her grandfather who was a Jewish community leader and philanthropist who also served in the 116th Aerial Squadron during WW I. According to a descendant, the first Yassenoff to immigrate to America did so in the wake of a particularly nasty Pogrom in Russia after killing one of their Cossack attackers. Milton Rice Yassenoff was adopted, possibly as a child orphaned by the Holocaust. (columbusjewishistory.org) Tom and Sue Klebold were gun control advocates who had no firearms in their home.

In response to a firestorm of hatred that came raging toward them in the wake of the tragedy, both families feared for their lives. Devastated and shell shocked, the Harris’ left town, the Klebolds divorced and Sue chose to remain in Littleton. Years later she would write A Mother’s Reckoning : Living in the Aftermath of Tragedy .(2017).

 

Aftermath

 

“Nothing determines who we will become as much as those things that we choose to ignore.”

Littleton’s Columbine tragedy remains a long way from resolution, and local aftershocks continue to this day. For some, important questions remain unanswered. Further events and revelations about the killers, their families, victims and their loved ones continue to shift the focus within this evolving collage of social tragedy, that has deep roots in unresolved wars, racism, genocide, social values, psychiatric medications, gun control controversy, and violent video games. In a tragedy that involves this much complexity, any single cause is neither obvious nor linear. As media noise rolls on, we continue to see, just as Eric and Dylan intended, a picture much larger than these events in Colorado.

Throughout various gestures and ceremonies of, commemoration, mourning and memorials, the Littleton community remained bitterly divided as to whether the killers should be acknowledged, included, worthy of prayers or any kind of remembrance whatsoever. While there was no genuine resolution, those in favor of exclusion generally prevailed. And yet, in April 2007, Littleton, Colorado was again in the news. During the 8th anniversary of the massacre, the community was bitterly engaged in another gun related controversy, regarding another memorial, from yet another war.

At issue was a planned construction of a nine foot, life-like bronze statue crouched for action, intended to honor a local youth killed during the war in Afghanistan. It is generally agreed that that Navy SEAL Danny Dietz was a hero worthy of commemoration. However, objections were raised to a uniformed portrait, complete with a detailed replica of a high powered assault rifle, with an attached grenade launcher, his fingers positioned just inches from the trigger. A spokesperson from the city maintained that they had received more than 600 letters, calls and emails in support of this statue in its current form. Mayor Taylor, who was not in office during the 1999 assault rifle shootings, issued a statement saying that this statue should be seen as “a teaching tool”. Opponents of this statue pointed out, that its proposed location is just across the street from an elementary school, and just blocks away from other schools and a playground. Some parents who dared to speak out against this gun bearing statue and its location reported that they received death threats and other disturbingly hostile emails.

Funds for this Danny Dietz Memorial were raised by his parents with help from Ultra-Conservative Republican and Presidential Candidate Tom Tancredo. Danny’s statue was dedicated on July 4th, as part of Littleton’s patriotic, Independence Day celebrations. After a speech by a Secretary of the Navy, similar to the one at the Columbine memorial service, Dietz’s mother expressed “heartbreak and bewilderment “. She absolutely could not fathom that there could be any opposition to this bronze portrayal of a young man from Littleton, who died in a “military operation”, proudly bearing an array of assault weapons, facing a public school. This, she asserted, could have nothing to do with the Columbine school shooting.

As a mother, daughter and grand-daughter from a multi-generational military family, with my own levels of grief, loss and war trauma, I can understand a need for this level of psychic disconnect. And yet, given the fact that these mass shootings have continued, I feel that it is beyond time for us, as a concerned nation, to address our attachment to such glorification of perpetual wars and state-sponsored violence as evidence of “patriotism”.

While Danny’s grieving mother may well have had a real need for her beliefs, I find it curious that this same community that so vigorously excluded two other young men and their “military operation” from all of their memorial activities, has become so militantly determined to erect this larger than life statue of a gun-bearing youth, equipped with grenades, directly across from a school. This level of admittedly trauma induced, heart breaking, psychic disconnect, as frustrating as it may seem, also serves to open a window into the ongoing question as to why these mass murder school shooting events continue to replicate. As we have seen with Columbine, simplistic, specific agenda serving, single cause explanations are less than helpful. The carnage has continued, while we remain in a sleeple state of disconnection between our perpetual, genocidal, profit driven wars against “others” and violence as the solution to conflict; while our kids continue to kill each other at home.

Now, on the subject of psychic disconnection, I am reminded of then President Clinton’s speech shortly after Columbine, advising students that violence is never the solution to conflict. This address was delivered at the exact same time that he was bombing Kosovo, supposedly to prevent a genocide, with Apache helicopters, named after a tribe that we had nearly destroyed through systematic genocide. Small wonder that our present generation has so little confidence in government.

Americans of all political persuasions continue to shoot each other in our streets and now, with increasing frequency, in our schools and churches. Despite our claims for American exceptionalism and moral superiority, ours has always been a violent culture, founded from the onset by genocidal cultures and exploitation of slave labor. American violence, which never stops, has been glorified throughout our history. Given this history, any invitation to reconsider our relationship to guns is apt to meet with fierce and even violent resistance. And yet, there may be at least some degree of change in the air.

On February 14th, 2018, Valentine’s Day, Ash Wednesday for Catholics, this latest iteration in a series of horrific school shooting fractals took place in the quiet suburb of Parkland, Florida. A drill suddenly went live. Like Columbine, this school was also built on land previously occupied by indigenous who came to a genocidal end. Broward county was home to Seminoles who were either slaughtered or otherwise deported in accordance with colonization policies. In Parkland, shots rang out during a history class whose topic that day was the Holocaust.

While some may advocate arming teachers, more guns as a solution to too many guns doesn’t seem to offer a viable solution. Public school safety programs now include twice yearly, live shooter drills, conducted by former Special Forces and Israeli-trained militarized police. This policy has rapidly evolved into a highly profitable extension of our post 9/11 security theater and economics of fear.

One can take heart in that the response to the Florida shooting was radically different from Columbine in that survivors immediately took to social media, not available in 1999, commandeered news media and sent a clear message that enough is enough. They demanded action. It was  such a pleasure to watch these fed-up teenagers skillfully shift the narrative away from the shooter onto an urgent need for social change. Resistance, however, was predictably ugly and fierce. These outspoken young people were ignored by the White House, and this time we are mercifully spared from meaningless “thoughts and prayers”, and political platitudes. Vilified by conservative media as “crisis-actors”, threatened by the NRA, the young advocates for firearm safety became undeserving recipients of sexually specific threats of sadistic violence and gruesome death.

Nevertheless, on April 20th, at 11 A.M. on the anniversary of the Columbine rampage, students and teachers orchestrated a nationwide march to demand changes in our gun laws, especially in regard to AR-15 semi-automatic assault rifles. The night before, Parkland students had rallied in Littleton, Colorado, to demand stronger, national gun control laws. An important aspect of their now, ongoing, pro-active and inclusive agenda is to strongly encourage high school students, of all colors, religions, ethnic and gender identities, to get involved and vote as soon as they turn eighteen. Time will tell. (ASJ, A Question of Balance,2008, and Dave Cullen, Columbine, 2009).

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Moon Over Pennsylvania

90237736 – usa and north korea flags or banner vector illustration

Moon Over Pennsylvania

“Any politician who wants to run for president, will come to me…” (Reverend Sun Myung Moon)

“Have you ever had one of those wars where everything goes wrong” (Hawkeye Pierce)

Guns and religion run bone-deep within our religiously infused American exceptionalism, where God’s elect are authorized to seize territory, kill and enslave in fulfillment of our divine purpose. Now in 2018, a bizarre new twist to this brand of patriotism came to light in Pennsylvania, shortly after the Parkland Florida high school shooting, which soon led me toward a deep, dark rabbit hole of non-linear causality. There is nothing new in that fact that guns buttress our myth of rugged individualism, that continues to atomize, challenge and polarize community . We also know, the more powerful the weapon, the more potent the gun owner feels. It has become something like an open secret that the proliferation of guns within our society is not only profitable for arms manufacturers, it fools the disempowered into fetishizing weapons as some guarantor of safety and political agency.

And still, with all of the above in mind, the February 28th events in Newfoundland, Pennsylvania, appeared to me at least, beyond surreal. According to many mainstream multimedia reports the Sanctuary Church held a blessing and marriage-commitment ceremony which included a blessing of the congregant’s nuptials while holding up Ar-15 semi-automatic weapons. According to mainstream media reports, hundreds of eerily resolute, gun-toting worshippers arrived; including some 170 of the faithful over from South Korea along with a few from Japan. Parishioners had donned ritual vestments and gold crowns, some made from bullets. And no, I am not making this up and this piece is not a satire.

This World Peace and Unification Church, considered by some to be a sect, is an offshoot of the Unification Church founded by the late Reverend Sun Myung Moon. Pastor of the Pennsylvania congregation is the youngest of Reverend Moon’s16 children, Reverend Hyung Jin “Sean” Moon who presided over a four day ceremony of gun blessing and marriage rituals, conducted in Korean with English translation. To the outside observer, this public display of ammo-sexuality lends a whole other twist to our age old tradition of “shotgun weddings”, along with the specter of some really explosive divorce proceedings.

In this version of Christianity, AR-15 assault rifles symbolize the “rod of iron” mentioned in the apocalyptic Book of Revelations: 2:27 (King James Version) which predicts the Second Coming of Christ, “…and He shall rule them with a rod of iron; as the vessels of a potter shall be broken to slivers”. Celebrations concluded with a “Thank President Trump Dinner” held at a Best Western Hotel. Many of these holy weapons were likely purchased from Kahr Arms, a local gun manufacturer in nearby Greely owned by “Sean” Moon’s brother “Justin” Moon Kook Jin. Gun experts report that the AR-15 is popular because it is lightweight, easy to use, and without significant recoil. Aspiring celebrants who did not yet possess a rifle in time for these ceremonies, were told that they could purchase a $700 gift certificate for their weapon and this paper could be similarly blessed.

Local residents were understandably spooked by these lavishly costumed goings on. With emotions still raw from the Valentine’s Day High School massacre in Florida, their local elementary school was evacuated as a precaution. Irate parents were unimpressed by the supposed sanctity of commitment blessings which to them meant nothing more than their kids missing days of learning so that some deluded foreigners could marry their guns.

While striving to make any kind of sense as to what might really be going on with this bizarre mix of firearms, religion and Korea, I need to return to that elusive rabbit hole of non-linear causality where there are likely to be a few fractals unfolding. While this weaponized, Christian, royal-robed spectacle might be dismissed with a snicker and a shrug, the fact that nearly every major multimedia outlet ran this story is a significant indication of its importance. These admittedly bizarre ceremonies received massive media coverage at a time when tensions with North Korea have been vigorously revived under the Trump administration along with a national debate about the need for citizens to carry military grade weapons. From a systemic perspective, I suspect that the high strangeness in that Pennsylvania church is a manifestation of lies, cover-ups and covert arms deals in relation to unfinished business from the Korean War.

During World War II, Korea was occupied by Japan and then in 1945 was divided along the 38th parallel, with two occupations by the USA and the former Soviet Union, which immediately precipitated a brutal war of national re-unification. Korea remains as a kind of blind spot in the public imagination, as it served as an essential bridge to the big money machinery of total global dominance. As part of the Cold War Era, the Korean conflict was crucial in that our economy had been organized toward war, so it became necessary to re-configure these efforts in the service of perpetual warfare.The subsequent establishment of the U.S. National Security State led to our still expanding empire of bases. During the conflict which raged through 1950-1953, nearly 3.5 million lives were lost, and at least 36,516 were American, a value mostly to the defense contractors and the politicians they owned. An uneasy truce was established 1953 and the US has remained on permanent war footing. (Janine Jackson, truth-out.org, March 3, 2018)

The Korean War provided material for one of the highest-rated shows in television history. M*A*S*H (Mobile Army Surgical Hospital), which ran from 1972 and was adapted from the film, based on a novel. While this comedy/drama was an ensemble piece, revolving around key personnel during the Korean conflict, many Americans assumed it was about our Vietnam War which was escalating at that time. Often, under the cover of comedy, the dialogues questioned America’s roles the Cold War Era.

Trauma Surgeon Hawkeye Pierce:

War isn’t Hell. War is war and Hell is Hell. And, of the two, war is a lot worse.

Chaplin: How do you figure?

Hawkeye: Easy Father. Tell me, who goes to Hell?

Chaplin: Sinners, I believe.

Hawkeye: Exactly. There are no innocent bystanders in Hell. War is chock full of them; little kids, cripples, and old ladies. It fact, except for some of the brass, almost everybody is an innocent bystander.

Here, I think it is important to mention that during the Korean and Vietnam Wars the USA had conscription. Eventually, the anti-war protests grew to such numbers that the draft was abolished and we now have an all volunteer military.

Perpetual war requires a steady supply of arms, and the Reverend Sun Myung Moon, founder of Korea’s Unification Church was eager to help. Born and persecuted in North Korea, Moon eventually managed to escape to South Korea. After several previous trips, he relocated to America and quickly entered politics during the 1970s with our Vietnam War ongoing at that time. In 1982 he purchased The Washington Times, which quickly became essential reading for any political news junkie. It has since been suggested that he introduced right wing propaganda into mainstream media. Reverend Moon continued to burrow deeper into our conservative mainstream as the self-proclaimed messiah and heir to Jesus Christ with a cult of apparently zombified mass- married, followers. His close ties with the arms, and some say drug, trades in Latin America and George Herbert Walker Bush during his tenure as CIA director and Vice President and President are well documented for those willing to do the research.  (James Ridgeway, Mother Jones, April 29, 2007 )

Reverend Moon died in 2012 at the age of 92 and his mission continues through family members including Sean’s ministry and Justin’s gun manufacturing company in Pennsylvania.

So now it seems that the Moon church arms complex continues to play a role in our American politics which has become an extension war. In addition to our troops in 70% of the world’s countries, we have our President needlessly revving up tensions with North Korea; a number of wars in oil rich Muslim counties, as well as our class war, together with our war on terror where we are constantly fighting enemies who are everywhere and nowhere at all. Violence is becoming increasingly normalized with multiple school and other mass-shootings as our shell-shocked culture continues to veer toward the irrational; which so clearly manifested in Pennsylvania. Given current levels of escalating hysteria, one wonders what the reaction would have been to the Sanctuary Church ceremonies if those worshippers had been Mexican, Black or Muslim?

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Enough

87042859 – many shell casings from bullets of different caliber in the background chaos concept in the world

ENOUGH

“Violence is as American as cherry pie” (H. Rap Brown)

I could stand in the middle of Fifth Avenue and shoot someone and not lose voters” (Donald Trump)

“When your children act like leaders and your leaders act like children, you know that change is coming” (Mikel Jollett)

 

Americans of all political persuasions are shooting each other in the streets and now, with increasing frequency, in our schools and churches. Despite our claims for American exceptionalism and moral superiority, ours has always been a violent country, founded from the onset by genocidal policies and exploitation of slave labor. This American violence, which never stops, has been glorified throughout our history. Violence is the default setting for problem solving for unruly children as well as foreign regimes whose policies we don’t like. Media hyped violence is just about everywhere on our news in keeping with the TV cliché, “If it bleeds, it leads”.

Hollywood action films, Superhero Blockbusters and quick kill video games are enormously popular as entertainment.  Our empire supports a Late Roman taste for violence as spectacle; which is nothing new to our culture. I grew up on the East Coast, watching Old Western movies, together with other kids from our neighborhood, on our little black and white TV screen, which glorified charismatic gunslingers. Every week we had a new episode of the Lone Ranger on his white horse, shooting silver bullets; sheriffs rounding up their posses to organize  “necktie  parties” for the bad hombres who rode black horses. Sharing juice and cookies, we eagerly followed many a gang of valiant vigilantes setting out to promote frontier justice. Interestingly enough, many of these episodes were filmed in Arizona where I now live, which at that time, seemed as far away as Mars.

And then there was Annie Oakley, the most famous sharpshooting heroine of her time, who often starred in Buffalo Bill’s traveling Wild West Shows. A movie about her life starred Lana Turner, and  there were coloring books for girls featuring her rootin, tootin  frontier adventures.  Many Americans also have a kind of nostalgic affection and enthusiasm for elaborate, sanitized re-enactments of earlier wars. Revolutionary War enthusiasts stage their re-reenactments in period costumes on battlefield sites with their reproduced versions of the Brown Bess Musket. These theatrics are always well attended by participants and spectators, as are similar events re-enacting our Civil War. In modern times we have Clint Eastwood’s gun- bearing Dirty Harry daring any adversary  to “Make my day”,  as well as Sylvester Stallone’s now iconic Rambo. All the while our toy industry has greatly profited from this long tradition of lethal weapon’s lore. The fact that a Republican candidate for the presidency could boast as to how he could stand in the middle of 5th Avenue and shoot somebody without losing voters, and be nevertheless elected, makes our situation clear enough.

Any invitation for Americans to re-think our relationship to guns is likely to meet with fierce resistance, given our history. It is not only a deeply ingrained belief that fire- arms equate with power but also it is our God given freedom set forth in the 2nd amendment of our constitution. In reality this freedom also includes freedom to stockpile guns and ammunition that we can order online with prime-time delivery options.

Times have changed since our  long-gone  colonial and frontier days. Our once democratic republic has become a world-wide, militaristic empire; and war permeates our fear-driven  post 9/11 culture. In addition to Orwellian perpetual wars to “preserve our freedom” that we hardly notice, we are routinely asked to enlist in a War on Drugs, War on Christmas, and War on Terror. All the while our  bought and paid for politicians continue to allocate ever more gazillions for more and more weapons of mass destruction. Never mind that too many of our human warriors are easily discarded and sleeping in the streets. The hour is late and our situation is dire.

On February 14th, 2018, Valentine’s Day,  Ash Wednesday for Catholics, the latest iteration of a series of horrific school shooting fractals took place in the quiet suburb of Parkland, Florida, when a drill suddenly went live. Why so many of these mass casualty events such as 9/11,7/7 and  others, nearly always take place at the same time as a drill, is a topic for a whole other discussion.  Another co-incidence, if you believe in such things, is that, like Columbine, the Florida school was built on land previously occupied by indigenous who came to a genocidal end.  Broward County was home to Semioles who were either slaughtered or otherwise deported in accordance with colonization policies. In Parkland, the shots rang out during a class on Holocaust history.

While Colorado’s 1999 Columbine High School massacre, in the quiet suburb of Littleton, was not the first event of this kind in the USA, it became iconic due to massive media hype and political involvement at the highest levels of both government and military. The reasons for this are complex and not well understood, as they have to do with the unfinished business of war. I wrote about this in some depth in A Question of Balance (2008) as did Dave Cullen in Columbine (2009). In his film Bowling for Columbine, Michael  Moore addressed this underlying issue of war, from a different and still related perspective.

Parkland Florida’s Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School is located on the edge of the Everglades and named for this environmental activist. Ironically, among the single-cause explanations for this tragedy, mental illness was favored by our mainstream media, and  Ms Douglas suffered from severe episodes of mental illness at various times in her life. Along with the mental illness as the problem rhetoric, was the theory that a majority of school shooters were taking  SSRI  (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor), medications which have the alarming side effect of both suicidal and homicidal ideations. While it does seem that these psychotropic drugs may well have played a role in these ongoing tragedies, there are other factors to consider, including ease of obtaining military style assault weapons such as the AR-15.

The Ar-15 automatic assault weaponhas that name for a reason; and for some they have become something like a fetish.  As novelist Stephen King has observed: “Semi-automatics have only two purposes. One is so owners can take them to the shooting range once in awhile, yell yee-haw and get all horny at the rapid fire and burning vapor spurting from the end of the barrel. The other is to kill people. (Guns). At present, there are some 5 million of these flesh shredding firearms in circulation; which can fire dozens of rounds in one single second.

All of which brings us to the raging debates surrounding the issue of gun control. The popular adage that “guns don’t kill people, people kill people” has a modicum of truth, since other heavily armed  populations, such as in Canada and Switzerland, do not have our mass shooting problems. Such countries also have mentally ill, many of whom are medicated with SSRIs; but they do not stage these horrific massacres. Other countries with strict gun control laws, such as those in Scandinavia, also have a clear consensus that these laws are an important aspect of public safety. Without consensus, gun control laws are not effective. Ask Mexico.

Unfortunately, the Columbine High School shooting issued in a new era of militarization of our schools with metal detectors installed and backscatter imaging devices became part of the teenage prom experience. While some may advocate arming teachers, more guns as a response to too many guns doesn’t seem to offer any viable solution. Public school safety programs now include twice yearly,  live shooter drills conducted by former Special Forces and Israeli trained militarized police. This has rapidly evolved into a profitable extension of the post 9/11 security theater profiting from the economics of fear.

If there is any good news, one finds that the Florida mass shooting is different in that survivors are taking to social media and news media with a clear message that enough is enough, and they demand action. On the April 20th anniversary of the 11 A.M. Columbine massacre, students and teachers are planning a nationwide march to demand changes in our gun laws. Celebrities such as George and Amal Clooney, and Oprah Winfrey are donating money and resources and also plan to participate in the marches. This is hopeful, in that one may actually hope for a much needed seismic shift in our collective understanding of freedom, guns and safety.

The storm is upon us and it seems clear that when it comes to common sense gun laws, there is no leadership available from our corporate-controlled oligarchy, and that change can only be achieved from the ground upward. Grassroots groups could arise organically, perhaps as shooting clubs, as well as community activists willing to get involved with local law-enforcement, volunteer firefighters, and emergency responders to promote gun safety courses and competitions. Together they could create an actual infrastructure capable of facing all manner of diversity together as a community of responsible and sovereign citizenry. (Land Destroyer, Global Research, February 16, 2018).

 

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Todesmarch

 

Todesmarch

We as an Earth civilization have not, as yet come to understand ourselves.” (Edgar Mitchell, Astronaut)

Barbarism is not the inheritance of our prehistory. It is the companion that dogs our every step”. (Alain Finkielkraut, Philosopher )

“The opposite of love is not hate – its indifference. Where there is hate there still may be love”.  (Elie Wiesel, Holocaust Survivor)

 

While time has been described as movement from one point to another, as I move deeper into a systemic understanding of collective trauma, it is becoming increasingly clear that, in various non-linear ways, we still embody our past. Recent events in Germany have confirmed, for me at least, that this is indeed the case and that elements from unresolved events will continue to represent in some form or another, in search of resolution. Earlier this year, it was Spring in beautiful Bavaria, lilacs in full bloom as their scent carried throughout the air of this historic region. I spent a day in and around the small Baroque town of Bad Tölz at the invitation offered by my German co-creative partner, Dr. Karl-Heinz Rauscher. History is always with us, in our international; Men, Women, War and Peace events, given the reality of our family systems involvement in the events from World War II. On this day, we had an opportunity to walk together along some of the historical places that had impacted us both and our families in different and also inter-related ways.

While Karl-Heinz was born in Bavaria and lives in Bad Tölz, my experience of this region has been quite different and inextricably bound within specific events of World War II. My father’s 45th Infantry Division of the U.S. Seventh Army was active in this locale and also involved in the liberation of the Dachau concentration camp toward the final days of the WW II. On this day, just prior to our upcoming seminar on Men, Women, War and Peace, we followed a portion of the path of a death march evacuation  of prisoners from the infamous forced labor camp located just outside of Dachau, which also had 123 sub-camps and factories in this vicinity. On the last roll-call before liberation there were some 30,442 inmates in the main camp and another 37,223 incarcerated in nearby satellite-institutions. Established in 1933 Dachau was one of the earliest camps and the only one to have existed throughout the 12 year reign of Nazi terror.

With allied troops fast approaching, nearly 15,000 prisoners were force-marched southward toward the Austrian border, along the eastern shore of the Starnberger See, headed toward the Tegernsee. The reasons for this cruel maneuver are unclear, and possibly had something to do with an effort to launch a last-ditch resistance to build fortifications in the Tyrol. By May of 1945 barely 6,000 of those prisoners had survived, since those in failing health and stamina were shot as they fell along the way. Months later, a mass grave containing 1,071 inmate bodies were found along the route. (NY Times, August 18,1945, p.5).  As they passed through Bad Tölz, and more than a dozen other Bavarian towns, they were seen and surreptitiously photographed by “ordinary Germans”, “who didn’t know”. Passing through, they would have seen or at least heard reports of thousands of tormented figures with shaven heads, sunken eyes, hollow cheeks, weighing less than 80 lbs, shivering in tattered, striped prison uniforms forced to march some 10 to 15 hours a day while suffering from starvation and exposure. (Daniel Goldhagen, Hitler’s Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and The Holocaust, 1997)

In the face of such historical horror, Americans would do well to keep in mind the fact that our very own, über-patriotic, “silent majority”, has displayed a similar reaction to oppression and atrocity against “others”. While this inconvenient truth has been evident throughout our history, in recent years, I remember a time when the state-sponsored violence of racial segregation was law, illegal wars declared and, even now, genocidal policies continue to be legislated against our indigenous populations.

We began our day with a walk along the main street in Bad Tölz, as Karl-Heinz’s cell phone rang with a message from someone who questioned his choice to work with an American on issues of war. “They were the victors”, he said,” they don’t know anything”. Continuing on we stopped at times to read the messages on the Stolpersteine  (stumbling blocks) set within the cobblestones. These metal plaques, which measure approximately 10 x10 cm, are a product of a public art project and work of German conceptual artist and sculptor Gunter Demnig. In contrast to most memorials designed to command attention, his understated Stolpersteine reside quite literally underfoot. Each plaque is carefully handcrafted in order to commemorate all Jews, Roma, Blacks Sinti, dissidents, homosexuals, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Free-Masons, military deserters, resistance-fighters and communists who were deported and exterminated. These small plaques also commemorate the mentally and physically disabled victims of euthanasia, as well as those who survived incarceration, sterilization-clinics. Those forced to immigrate or commit suicide as a result of Nazi persecution. Each has one name, date of birth, date taken away and date and manner of death, if known, and placed in the pavement outside this individual’s last known address or workplace. In Bad Tölz, there were many.

Later that morning, we drove out of town along the death-march route to Waakirchen, the site of the death-march memorial created by Hubertus von Pilgrim (b.1931) set just a few steps up from the side of the roadway. Around and behind this cast of his bronze depiction of a huddled line of skeletal figures, we could see open, gently rolling wildflower meadows, which have long swallowed, as Nature often does, innumerable traces of massive human suffering. And still, the fact remains that this idyllic country meadow, once held a campsite where thousands of nearly-dead prisoners were camped, and then discovered by American troops, after their SS guards had fled. Many were fallen and covered with snow in that unseasonably cold year which had freezing temperatures and flurries ongoing into the last weeks of May.

Strong winds came up as we slowly circled the gaunt silhouettes with each figure expressing a range of expressions of indescribable suffering, pain, confusion, despair and exhaustion; barely able to stand there together, in stark testimony to man’s inhumanity to man. Their somber shades of gray, in our changing, late morning light, served to evoke the complicated middle-ground complicity, all around the vast and varied edges of the Holocaust era. On closer inspection, we could see that the sculptor had delicately etched and textured the surface of each figure’s exposed flesh, bearing witness to whips, canes and other torturous abuses, along with open sores and other evident ravages of disease and malnutrition.

Standing there together, with no words, I suddenly felt a stab of fear as we were startled by a low growl rising into a thunderous roar. Turning toward this ominous sound, we saw that a leather clad motorcyclist had arrived and was in the process of parking his bike; probably from a need to relieve himself, and disappeared into a nearby wood.

In his rush, the biker paid us no notice and upon his reappearance, seemed  to have remained completely oblivious or indifferent to us as well as to the memorial. During his brief absence, we noted his impeccably shined, silver and black machine, and matching black leather outfit complete with a death’s-head insignia clearly visible on his black helmet, so evocative of the Third Reich’s motorcycle troops. In a way we were surprised (and also not), since we have been working with systemic approaches to collective trauma long enough to understand that perpetrators and victims belong to the same system within individual, family and social fields. (sheldrake .org). It has also been our experience that synchronous events often manifest  during the course of our systemic approach to all levels and manifestations of unresolved trauma, within our workshops and also when we are simply out and around within our daily lives.

The death’s head on the biker’s black helmet was especially chilling since the totenkopf was used by elite SS (Schützenstaffel) on their on their uniforms and visor caps. The SS ran extermination and labor camps in Germany and throughout Nazi occupied Europe. In 1935, Dachau became a training camp for administrators and other personnel where recruits were conditioned to adapt an attitude of inflexible hardness, and create an atmosphere of controlled, disciplined cruelty. As the dark figure returned to his machine and prepared to depart, still oblivious to our nearby presence, he turned toward the road, revealing an iron cross symbol, clearly visible on the back of his black leather jacket. Beginning in 1939, Adolf Hitler employed the Iron Cross as a German decoration. Post-World War II neo-Nazis and other white supremacists subsequently adopted it as an internationally-recognized  hate symbol, and it is frequently seen in that context here in our increasingly authoritarian USA; whose belligerent patriotism knows no shame.

At present, more than a few of us are concerned that escalating and cascading crises, apparently generating a hostility-based political climate within regions of our country, increasingly resembles the 1930s in Germany. Citizenship here now demands a silencing of dissent, blind loyal respect for authority, militarism, universal surveillance, media-moguls and the corporate-brand. For now, it seems that we have not yet learned the fallacy that blind loyal trust in a powerful leader relieves us of our responsibility to understand. Here in dystopian, Trumplandia we are once again seeing the seductive power of a leader who promises simple answers which will saves us from complicated challenges.

While the European Holocaust is over, the practice of genocide and mass murder has continued on, unabated since the end of that war in 1945. The age-old, warped ideology of Fascist philosophy did not originate with the Third Reich, and history is clear that there has always been an ongoing need for the few to rule over the many; as well as groups seeking to oppress, control or even eliminate other groups. Nevertheless, there is still something hellish about it. Even powerful memorials, such as those created by Gunter Demnig and Hubertus von Pilgrim, along with innumerable written and photo documentations, together with thousands of official documents and testimonials, have failed to banish the false narratives of Holocaust denial. And so, we are left with a reality, which is that, for now at least, a primal need for hatred of the “other” remains at least as strong as our need for truth.

Perhaps I am not alone in my feeling that the hour is late and our situation is dire. Here, Pulitzer Prize journalist, activist and prolific author, Chris Hedges offers some well tempered advice for those of us struggling here through these late stages of our over-extended empire: “Once we no longer acknowledge our own capacity for evil, we no longer know ourselves, and we become monsters who devour others and eventually ourselves”. These destructions have happened before and will no doubt happen again, until all of humanity learns the value of making healthier and more inclusive, life- positive choices.

(Photos courtesy of Dr. Karl-Heinz Rauscher)

 

 

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Men Women War and Peace

“Once upon a time my father was a soldier – he did heal but was never whole… That war defined his life and defined my life before I was even born…One of these days someone needs to write a book about what war does to the children of those sent to fight and die in them…There are many like me and many more to come. We are the children of the aftermath. (William Rivers Pitt, Memorial Day, 2016)

“When your father died, it was like a grenade exploded within our family and then… the silence descended ..we didn’t know any better”. (Aunt Challis, my father’s younger sister)

“In peace, sons bury their fathers; in a war, fathers bury their sons”.

“War does not determine who is right; only who is left”. (Bertrand Russell)

On this upcoming Memorial Day here in Northern Arizona, our days begin began just before sun-up, as those of us desert dwellers know that the baking heat of our oncoming season requires that whatever needs doing, if at all possible, should really try to happen well before noon. And still, before I seriously got going, I took a few minutes to check my email which contained some life changing news from a cousin who is also our family historian. As I read his message, two major and interfacing themes during my years of social and war trauma work, suddenly came together in a totally new way: the choice of one’s life’s work is often an attempt to heal something unresolved within earlier generations, and the systemic role of wars and other conflicts in the ongoing war between men and women.

Years ago, it came to me, as I grew deeper into clinical work, that what we choose to pursue as either a profession or serious hobby is often either a conscious or unconscious attempt to heal something that remains unfinished from previous generations. A pivotal example that opened a way toward this understanding was my work with a swimming instructor for adults, who lost both parents in a boating accident because neither knew how to swim. Given my evolving understanding, in this regard, my ongoing and extensive work with trans-generational war trauma seems almost inevitable, especially with the focus of the impact of war upon the family. My earliest memory, which my Mother has confirmed, is of lying in a crib, around nap time, looking out a large window toward the sky and asking her about a noisy airplane flying low around and around my Grandfather’s rural farmhouse. “That noisy plane”, she explained, “is being flown by your Uncle Bill, saying a good bye to us, on his way ‘overseas’ to the war”. Uncle Bill, my Mother’s youngest brother, who later became an important protective figure in my early life, was a bomber pilot stationed in Southern England. As a staunch patriot, he joined, together with all my other uncles, aunts, cousins and other family members who were deeply involved in World War II; as soldiers, mechanics, navigators, tail gunners, doctors, nurses, Red Cross and home guard. Only many years later did I begin to realize the import of this military aspect of our family history and subsequent relationships.

We were fortunate that all of our relatives returned, at least physically intact, with the notable exception of my father who died in the Battle of Besancon in eastern France; reportedly blown to pieces by a German grenade. By interesting “co-incidence” if you believe such events are merely random, my father died in a battle on the very site where the Battle of Besancon took place on June 21, 1575 during religious wars between Protestants and Catholics. As a result of accusations of heresy, our Huguenot ancestors fled this exact area via north Holland on their way to New Amsterdam which eventually became New York.

My maternal Grandfather and other Uncles stepped in to provide a “fatherly” advisory presence, and I remain deeply and always grateful for their efforts…and still none could ever replace my very own and only father, long lost to war. As a child, I blamed Germany and all Germans for this unfathomable loss. As an adult, this changed during my international war trauma work, especially in Germany where the humiliation of defeat, occupation and division, had added yet another dimension of suffering to the massive devastation; some of which was caused by people that I loved and trusted.

As I became increasingly aware of my trans-generational legacy of war, and the no longer deniable impact of war upon families, my cousin’s Memorial Day message carried this understanding still deeper within an entirely new level that I have yet to fully integrate. His recent research has revealed that, on father’s side, our ancestor’s war service goes back as far as our history can be traced; including combatants in the American Civil war, three who enlisted in the War of 1812, as well as a dozen in the 1776 Revolutionary War and many of our earliest forefathers were colonial militia men. In short, our historian was unable to locate any male ancestor of service age who did not serve during a major U.S. conflict.

Here it is important to note that the impact of these war time experiences upon their physical, mental, and spiritual health, relationships, families and descendants, remains unknown as well as most likely unacknowledged and misunderstood. Please know and also take courage to resist any temptation or misguided invitation to forget, the ancient and long standing reality that it is not only soldiers who suffer the traumas of war… and that this unresolved pain can and most certainly will cascade on, downward and through succeeding generations with often unrecognized consequences.

On Mother’s side, our fiercely tribal Cornish clan was also involved in both World Wars, and to this day have not even reconciled with the English. As my Mother advised … upon the eve of my first trip over there to the UK and “our home” in St. Just, …”Our Cornish will tell you that they have never been to England”. To my surprise, she was not all that wrong about that. On that side of our family tree I would not be surprised to learn that they had also successfully battled Vikings, Picts, Romans, Saxons and maybe even seriously engaged in some head-bashing, stone-axe conflicts with the Neanderthals.

As the realization of my trans-generational mandate with unresolved war trauma began to gain a clearer focus, I also felt a necessity to probe much deeper into the impact of war upon families; as an often hidden source of conflict in relationships, especially between men and women. This was soon to become even clearer during the early 1990s as I co-facilitated a pilot program in the California High Sierra mountains; bringing together traumatized women and combat veterans from the conflicts in Korea and Vietnam.

Those wilderness-based events mark the beginning of my work with “Men, Women and War: And the War Between Men and Women”; some of which appears in my first book: Relative Balance in An Unstable World, (2005) written before I re-oriented toward a systemic perspective in regard to the immediate and trans-generational impact of war upon human relationships. This first account also includes material for a similar event that I offered within a deep forest setting in Russia, with their combat veterans and traumatized women. At this point, I should make clear that my understanding of war entangled relationships includes, trans-national conflicts as well as race, class, tribal, civil and religious wars; as well as consequences from political, revolutionary and genocidal agendas.

In subsequent decades I carried on with the “men, women and war” work, mostly on my own until I reached a kind of standstill with the realization that a book that I had long hoped to be able to write on this subject, so central to all of my other work with individual and social trauma…was just not happening. And then last year, it came to me, in May, during one sleepless full moon night in Mexico City, that the work, after all, was Men…Women and War..and the War between Men…and Women…and that this was not only women’s work, which could then be all mixed up with feminism; the real healing work needs to be done by men and women together. Moreover, given the oft trans-generational components of war and other conflicts, I realized the need for a strong, male partner, preferably from an “enemy ” culture…who knows war and shares my level of concern.

Within my family’s family-system, for at least two generations, our enemy was most definitely Germany, and so with this in mind I contacted my long time Bavarian colleague, Dr. Karl-Heinz Rauscher, since we had briefly done a early version of this work together during his visit to Colorado in 2001. While we had remained in contact after he returned to Germany and his practice of medicine, we had not actually seen each other in over a decade…and still his response was quite positive. However, Karl-Heinz felt that a totally new vision was now necessary, and that given that our families had been killing each other through at least two world wars, it was worth an effort to find a genuine path toward peace.

And so, after a year of serious preparation, during which a few long buried “landmines” continue to explode here and there…as layers of our war torn systemic entanglements continue to surface, disturb and disrupt, we nevertheless have managed to commit to finding our own way toward a genuine and lasting peace… on both an individual and systemic level. As a result Karl-Heinz and I presented our new vision of Men, Women and Peace, almost exactly one year later, at a (full moon) “Search for a New Systemic Intelligence” conference in Mexico City. And now despite our inevitable systemic tensions, 16 years into this, neither of us is willing to give up. Nevertheless, challenges continue along with the troublesome fact that with our Trump administration, relations between Germany and the USA are becoming increasingly strained. All in all, time will tell and still we persevere. In June we will offer another event at the UK’s Coventry Cathedral, now a bombed out remnant of war between our countries but also international memorial to all past, present and future victims of our ongoing bomb driven insanities of man’s ongoing inhumanity to man. More information for any and all who have been impacted by wars, bombs and violent conflicts of any kind, possibly for generations, is available at: http://coventryconstella.co.uk

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Fire in the Madhouse

Fire in the Madhouse

Fire in the Madhouse

Fire In The Madhouse :Trauma And The Human Condition : Volume V offers us a provocative exploration of the flurry of conflicts and preposterous events that swirled globally throughout 2016. Our gratitude to Anngwyn St. Just for providing us with a bit more light.” (Francesca Mason Boring, author of Healing Through Constellations,Ceremony and Ritual, and Feather Medicine.)

“Anngwyn St Just is one of the truly original and innovative thinkers in the field of traumatology. With clarity and wit she demonstrates how trauma becomes embedded within the very fabric of space and time and how traumatic experience plays out in our lives, from generation to generation”. (Peter A. Levine, Waking The Tiger: Healing Trauma and In An Unspoken Voice. How the Body Releases Trauma And Restores Goodness)

Fire in The Madhouse is the latest in Dr. St. Just’s growing list of outstanding books on trauma and the human condition. Anngwyn’s perspective and deep insights on collective trauma and the “bigger picture” of needed larger societal and global changes are not just welcome but more than ever before, needed, if we are to survive, and beyond this, transform the madhouse world we live in”.) John Bilorusky Ph.D. President, The Western Institute for Social Research, Berkeley, California.

This current volume, a fifth in a series of Trauma and the Human Condition blooks ” (blogs+books) which continue on as my most recent compendium of monthly online blogs offered throughout the calendar year through auspices of the Western Institute For Social Research, in Berkeley, California, ongoing since 2011. While most entries appear as they did on the WISR web site, some have been expanded and updated as new information has become available. As has been the case, in all previous volumes within this Trauma and the Human Condition series, my overall focus as a systemically oriented social traumatologist continues to remain, for the most part, on those issues having to do with those social and global traumas which contribute to the ongoing process of increasingly accelerated social change, due to globalization, and the internet, in conjunction with also increasingly complex and problematic trans-national, corporate and state sponsored surveillance technologies.

My title for this latest volume comes from a lecture offered by ethno-botanist Terrance McKenna, a seminal figure in various consciousness raising movements during the sixties and seventies while I was a graduate student at U.C.Berkeley, referred to by some more conservative souls as “Bezerkely, Nevertheless, I absolutely loved it there as both student, teacher and resident of that local community surrounding that seriously multi-culti, Bay Area university and remained active for over 30 years in a surrounding on and off campus, local and decidedly adventurous, consciousness awareness communities. No apologies.

While I never had enough real courage to imbibe any of those truly esoteric and exotic substances, cosmic mushrooms, datura, ayayuascha, DMT and so on from which Terrance derived many of his insights, I felt that his return trips had something to offer for those of us less willing to journey into those mysterious, unknown and potentially dangerous realms. On one occasion, which I cannot remember when, Terrance offered a lecture entitled “Fire in the Madhouse. In the End of Time ” and the image immediately resonated with our then and still current situation. In this lecture, Terrance opined that when an entire species is preparing to move on to the next dimension the entire destiny of the planet is tied up in this – we are not acting as our selves. We happen to be the point species for a transformation that will affect every living thing on this planet is caught up in this, the entire destiny of the planet at its conclusion. While I don’t really resonate with his apocalyptic vision, I would agree that the hour is late and our situation is dire.

Signs and symptoms of our collective insanity are everywhere and this Strangelovian leap year of 2016 produced many surprises, aptly described by some as a truly terrible, surreal 12 months that have rendered satire obsolete. Confusion reigns and in the words of British science fiction writer Anna Butler, 2016 is a year…”that stinks like a three week – dead tuna fish rolled in a batter of camel dung. It has brought us little but loss, war, death of innocents, vicious politics and near death of values such as tolerance and acceptance. All it has given us in exchange is noxious politics, dangerous selfishness and bigotry.” Strong words, odiferous even, and still I have never been so glad to see a year come to an end. If there is any good news, 2016’s beyond surreal events have provided pure gold manna reigning down upon our late night comedians, especially those specializing in political satire and fake news. Yet, the term “fake news ” was appropriated by the controllers as an neo-Orwellian attack on alternative media and any other anti-establishment site in a ham fisted attempt to limit free speech, manage leaks, obscure truth and blame it all on the Russians in a troublesome flashback to the Cold War, Red Scare Fifties.

In keeping with this manipulative insanity, if there was one word for 2016, it would likely be FEAR. With this in mind, I began the blogs in this volume with “Our Year of Fear ” a dark comedic account of a “killer squirrel ” terrorizing Northern California communities, all of which is absolutely true and therefore no need to fabricate or even embellish any details. Given that this volume is about 2016, the craziness continues with Al-Gebera and irrational, truly ignorant, out of control Islama- phobia and then that silly Killer Clown craze that shut down public schools during our Halloween season.

Given my profession, I do need to travel a lot and this is also reflected in this Volume V, as has also been with the previous volumes in this ongoing series. For those who are new to the subject of collective trauma, I felt that it was time to update and clarify my understanding of those traumas which involve groups larger than the family, communities, tribes, clans, nations and the biosphere herself and so I felt that this would be the optimum place to begin this latest addition to the series. (Fire In TheMadhouse, 2017 is now available through www.amazon.com)

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